The following paper draws on material originally contained in IMF Working Paper 95/98, "Growth in East Asia: What We Can and What We Cannot Infer From It," by Michael Sarel, an Economist in the Fund's Southeast Asia and Pacific Department. It has been prepared by David D. Driscoll of the Fund's External Relations Department. Readers interested in the original Working Paper may purchase a copy from IMF Publication Services.
The spectacular growth of many economies in East Asia over the past 30 years has amazed the economics profession and has evoked a torrent of books and articles attempting to explain the phenomenon. Articles on why the most successful economies of the region Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan Province of China have grown, to say the least, robustly invariably refer to the phenomenon as "miraculous." When practitioners of the Dismal Science have recourse to a Higher Power, the reader knows that he is in trouble. Confusion is compounded when he discovers that ideological debate has multiplied even further the analyses of this phenomenon. Rather than swelling the torrent of interpretations, this paper sets for itself the modest agenda of reviewing the weightiest arguments in the literature that attempt to identify the reasons for the extraordinary economic growth in East Asia and trying to decide which arguments make sense. The exercise has value because finding the right explanation might suggest how to replicate this success elsewhere and, as a bonus, might also satisfy the reader's urge to solve an engaging intellectual puzzle. It is best if we start with the facts.
Since 1960 Asia, the largest and most populous of the continents, has become richer faster than any other region of the world. Of course, this growth has not occurred at the same pace all over the continent. The western part of Asia grew during this period at about the same rate as the rest of the world, but, as a whole, the eastern half (ten countries: China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan Province of China, and Thailand) turned in a superior performance, although variations in achievement can be observed here too. The worst performer was the Philippines, which grew at about 2 percent a year (in per capita terms), about equal to the average of non-Asian countries. China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, and Thailand did better, achieving growth rates of 3-5 percent. This impressive achievement is, however, still modest compared with the phenomenal growth of Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan Province of China, known as the "Four Tigers" because of their powerful and intimidating economic performance. The Tigers have had annual growth rates of output per person well in excess of 6 percent. These growth rates, sustained over a 30-year period, are simply amazing. While the average resident of a non-Asian country in 1990 was 72 percent richer than his parents were in 1960, the corresponding figure for the average Korean is no less than 638 percent.
The descriptive biology of torrent mites (Parasitengona: Torrenticolidae: Torrenticola) of North America (north of Mexico) is investigated using integrative methods. Material examined includes approximately 2,300 specimens from nearly 500 localities across the United States and Canada, and a few collections in Mexico and Central America. Species hypotheses are derived from a phylogenetic analysis of the barcoding region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) for 476 specimens and supported with morphology and biogeography. Relationships between species are examined with a combined analysis of COI and two expansion regions (D2-3) of the large ribosomal subunit (28S rDNA) for 57 specimens. All previously described species from the US and Canada are examined. Our results indicate the need to synonymize four species: T. mercedensis (Marshall, 1943) is a junior synonym of T. sierrensis (Marshall, 1943); T. rectiforma Habeeb, 1974 is a junior synonym of T. ellipsoidalis (Marshall, 1943); T. neoconnexa Habeeb, 1957 is a junior synonym of T. magnexa Habeeb, 1955; and T. esbelta Cramer, 1992 is a junior synonym of T. boettgeri KO Viets, 1977. We describe 66 new species and re-describe all previously described regional species. Our findings indicate that total diversity of Torrenticola in the United States and Canada comprises 90 species, 57 known from the east and 33 from the west. We organize these species into four species complexes that include 13 identification groups. An additional 13 species do not fit within an identification group. The southern Appalachians are suspected to contain the highest concentration of remaining undescribed diversity. A key is provided to all known species in the US and Canada.
It is bordered by Aldaia, Alaquàs and Xirivella in the north, Picanya and Catarroja in the east, Alcàsser and Picassent in the south and Montserrat, Godelleta, Turís and Xiva in the West. All of the cities are part of the province of Valencia.
Alan Watts Psychotherapy East and West _in_east_and_west.htmThe following text consists of excerpts from Alan Watts' book, Psychotherapy East and West, selected by Heron Stone. ** means that part of a paragraph is missing. Editorial comments have been added and appear within brackets.
At the end of the last glacial period, two great torrent valleys were shaped by the vast flow of water as the glaciers melted and receded. Today, the Cal-Sag Channel follows the path of one of these valleys. Part of theCalumet Riveris in the eastern part of this torrent valley, along with a tributary, Stony Creek. The western half contained the Saganashkee Slough, a huge swamp area that reached from theDes Plaines Rivereastward, at times reaching to the bend in the Calumet River (southeast of present-dayBlue Island).
"Those who have ever witnessed a Waterspout will bear testimony to its appalling nature. One of these curious phenomena occurred on the Central Stage Road in Golden Gate Gulch, 4 miles above the town of Golden, on July 14 about 4 o'clock.... Presently a violent commotion, with confusion of sounds like the tumult of the elements, was heard high up in the mountains. Then came a tremendous torrent of water, bearing trees and boulders, and calculated to astonish and terrify by its magnitude, force and violence. The horses, seeing that they were to be sacrificed to the prodigious volume, took fright, and shying to one side upset the carriage and all occupants were pitched into the bottom of the gulch. In an instant, as it were, and before they [Mr. Jack Virden and family] could recover their feet, the wave, with a perpendicular breast of 10 or 12 feet, was upon them and licked them up like the sands of the gulch. Mrs. Virden clung to her husband, and he, by miraculous chance, got hold of a limb and held fast until the flood subsided..."
We turn right (east) and cross the top of the dam on a wide paved road. Reach the cafe and bus stop at the eastern end of the barrage at 7.2 miles. During the summer regularly scheduled buses depart for Grimentz, Zinal and the head of Lac Moiry. 2b1af7f3a8