This book takes a page from Socrates, as did its predecessor, Exceptional C++ Sutter00. It assumes you're involved in some aspect of writing production C++ software today, and uses a question-answer format to teach you how to make effective use of standard C++ and its standard library with a particular focus on sound software engineering in modern C++. Many of the problems are drawn directly from experiences I and others have encountered while working with production C++ code. The goal of the questions is to help you draw conclusions from things you already know as well as things you've just learned, and to show how they interrelate. The puzzles will show how to reason about C++ design and programming issues--some of them common issues, some not so common; some of them plain issues, some more esoteric; and a couple because, well, just because they're fun.
This book is about all aspects of C++. I don't mean to say that it touches on every detail of C++--that would require many more pages--but rather that it draws from the wide palette of the C++ language and library features to show how apparently unrelated items can be used together to synthesize novel solutions to common problems. It also shows how apparently unrelated parts of the palette interrelate on their own, even when you don't want them to, and what to do about it. You will find material here about templates and namespaces, exceptions and inheritance, solid class design and design patterns, generic programming and macro magic--and not just as randomized tidbits, but as cohesive Items showing the interrelationships among all of these parts of modern C++.
Where else does More Exceptional C++ differ? This book has a much stronger emphasis on generic programming and on using the C++ standard library effectively, including coverage of important techniques such as traits and predicates. Several Items provide in-depth looks at considerations to keep in mind when using the standard containers and algorithms; many of these considerations I've not seen covered elsewhere. There's a new section and two appendixes that focus on optimization in single- and multithreaded environments--issues that are now more than ever of practical consequence for development shops writing production code.
The term exceptional ability is defined as a degree of expertise significantly above that ordinarily encountered in the sciences, arts, or business. This standard is lower than the standard for extraordinary ability classification.
While officers should consider the quality and caliber of the evidence to determine whether a particular regulatory criterion has been met, officers should not yet make a determination regarding whether or not the beneficiary qualifies for exceptional ability in this first step.
An official academic record showing that the beneficiary has a degree, diploma, certificate, or similar award from a college, university, school, or other institution of learning relating to the area of exceptional ability;
Evidence that the beneficiary has commanded a salary or other remuneration for services that demonstrates exceptional ability. (To satisfy this criterion, the evidence must show that the beneficiary has commanded a salary or remuneration for services that is indicative of his or her claimed exceptional ability relative to others working in the field);
Objectively meeting the regulatory criteria alone does not establish that the beneficiary in fact meets the requirements for exceptional ability classification. For example, being a member of professional associations alone, regardless of the caliber, should satisfy one of the three required regulatory criteria. However, the beneficiary's membership should also be evaluated to determine whether it is indicative of the beneficiary having a degree of expertise significantly above that ordinarily encountered in the sciences, arts, or business. However, this secondary evaluation should be conducted as part of the final merits determination.
Meeting the minimum requirement by providing at least three types of initial evidence does not, in itself, establish that the beneficiary in fact meets the requirements for exceptional ability classification. Officers must also consider the quality of the evidence. In the second part of the analysis, officers should evaluate the evidence together when considering the petition in its entirety for the final merits determination. The officer must determine whether or not the petitioner, by a preponderance of the evidence, has demonstrated that the beneficiary has a degree of expertise significantly above that ordinarily encountered in the sciences, arts, or business.
When requesting additional evidence or drafting a denial, if the officer determines that the petitioner has failed to demonstrate this requirement, he or she should not merely make general assertions regarding this failure. Rather, the officer must articulate the specific reasons as to why the officer concludes that the petitioner, by a preponderance of the evidence, has not demonstrated that the beneficiary qualifies for exceptional ability classification.
The petitioner must demonstrate that the beneficiary is above others in the field; qualifications possessed by most members of a given field cannot demonstrate a degree of expertise significantly above that ordinarily encountered. The mere possession of a degree, diploma, certificate or similar award from a college, university, school, or other institution of learning is not by itself considered sufficient evidence of exceptional ability.
Furthermore, formal recognition in the form of certificates and other documentation that are contemporaneous with the beneficiary's claimed contributions and achievements may have more weight than letters prepared for the petition recognizing the beneficiary's achievements. As with all adjudications, if an officer believes that the facts stated in the petition are not true, and can articulate why in the denial, then the officer denies the petition and explains the reasons in the written denial.
Schedule A, Group II permanent labor certification for persons of "exceptional ability in the sciences or arts" is distinct from classification as an person of "exceptional ability in the sciences, arts, professions, or business." Under the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s regulations, an employer seeking permanent labor certification on behalf of an person of "exceptional ability in the sciences or arts" may apply directly to USCIS for Schedule A, Group II permanent labor certification instead of applying to DOL for issuance of a permanent labor certification.
The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) defines professional athletes for the purpose of allowing them to retain the validity of the underlying permanent labor certification if they change employers. These athletes may qualify for exceptional ability classification. Specifically, the precedent decision Matter of Masters held that a professional golfer could, if he was otherwise eligible, qualify as for exceptional ability classification in the arts.
This holding has been interpreted to apply to exceptional ability petitions filed on behalf of any athlete. However, the fact that the beneficiary has signed a contract to play for a major league team may not be sufficient to establish exceptional ability as a professional athlete.
A team that is a member of an association of six or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year, if the association governs the conduct of its members and regulates the contests and exhibitions in which its member teams regularly engage; or
As is the case with all petitions for persons of exceptional ability, the petitioner must provide, as initial evidence, documentation demonstrating that the beneficiary qualifies exceptional ability classification, as specified in the regulations. However, submission of evidence that meets the three required regulatory criteria does not necessarily establish that the beneficiary is qualified for the classification. An officer must assess the quality of such evidence, in addition to the quantity of the evidence presented, in determining whether the petitioner has met its burden in establishing that the beneficiary is qualified for the classification.
Similarly, an approved permanent labor certification submitted on behalf of a professional athlete does not prove that the beneficiary qualifies as an athlete of exceptional ability. Officers should look for evidence of exceptional ability beyond the mere existence of a contract with a major league team or an approved permanent labor certification.
An approved permanent labor certification submitted on behalf of the beneficiary does not bind USCIS to a determination that the person is of exceptional ability. Notwithstanding the grant of a permanent labor certification, the beneficiary may, for any number of reasons, be unable to fulfill the underlying purpose of the petition.
Qualification for the EB-2 classification as a member of the professions holding an advanced degree or as a person of exceptional ability does not automatically mean that the person qualifies for a national interest waiver. Regardless of whether the person is an advanced degree professional or demonstrates exceptional ability, the petitioner seeking a waiver of the job offer must not only demonstrate eligibility for the classification, but also demonstrate that the waiver itself is in the national interest.
Section 1 below provides an overview of the three prongs that are part of the analysis; section 2 provides guidance specific to persons with advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM); section 3 addresses letters of support and other evidence from interested government agencies and quasi-governmental entities; and finally, section 4 is specific to entrepreneurs. 2b1af7f3a8